A general summary: reasons to test are ultimately dictated by company policy, collective agreements & DOT agencies. 

Pre-Employment: 

After employment is offered a test can be ordered pending a negative result to be hired.

Random:

These tests are used to deter Employees from using drugs & misusing alcohol.

Reasonable Suspicion:

Used when a trained supervisor or trained company official suspects an employee is under the influence of drugs, alcohol or both. The suspicion must be based on specific observations – current appearance, behavior, speech, etc. Observations must be documented.

Post Accident:

Depending on company policy or DOT agency testing, criteria for post-accident testing varies. A window for testing is usually required. Supervisors must document the reasons for testing.

Return to Duty/Follow-up:

When an employee tests positive, refuses a test or violates other provisions of testing regulations that an employee cannot return to a Safety Sensitive Position until meeting the requirements of the SAP. The employee must have a negative return-to-duty test. Follow-up screening will take place as requested by the SAP.

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